Drivers on Pennsylvania’s streets, roads and highways see evidence of distracted driving all around them on a daily basis. The main problem is people using cellphones while driving. The Morning Call, a leading Lehigh Valley news source, reports that whether used for talking or texting, cellphone usage is a leading cause of fatal accidents according to the National Safety Council, along with speeding and drunk driving.
If you are a Pennsylvania resident who has been arrested and charged with theft, you may be confused about exactly what is that you are accused of having done. That is not surprising given that the Pennsylvania Legislature has defined no less than 17 types of theft that can occur in this state.
The differences between the criminal law and civil law in Pennsylvania are manifest in at least two major ways: the consequences flowing from a violation of either type and the parties involved in each case. A civil case, for example, involves private parties who have a dispute over a matter. The person initiating the lawsuit is called the “plaintiff” and the person against whom relief is sought is called the “defendant.” At stake in a civil case are injunctive relief or damages. Injunctive relief means that a court may force a party to do something or prevent a party from doing another. Damages are the money compensation that are awarded by a court to the party who has suffered a harm or deprivation attributable to the other. In a civil case, one party does not ask the court to incarcerate or arrest the other party. Civil law can be laid down in a state statute or can be found in common law. Common law is the body of law adopted from English law and developed over time in Pennsylvania through the precedent of court rulings. A “tort” is the general term used to define a civil wrong for which a remedy may be allowed. However, contract law, property law, family law, and probate law also fall under the civil law.
After a criminal complaint has been filed against a defendant, a prosecutor representing the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and an attorney representing the defendant begin communicating over the terms of the defendant’s pending criminal case. A criminal complaint outlines the criminal charges against the defendant. This process of communication is referred to as plea negotiation or plea bargaining and concerns the content of the criminal complaint and the sentencing guidelines that would typically apply. Subject to negotiation are the defendant’s plea, alterations to the original charges, and the resultant sentencing and punishment to be recommended to the court.
If you are driving in Pennsylvania and are suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol, youmay be asked to submit to a breath test or a blood test to determine if there is any alcohol in your system and, if so, what amount of alcohol is detected. However, prior to that, you may be asked to submit to field sobriety tests. These tests are not used to identify whether or not you are actually intoxicated. Instead these tests are used by officers to provide enough support that backs their decision to place you under arrest for suspected drunk driving.
Cases involving domestic violence are often quick to stir up emotions amongst people in Pennsylvania, as such news often conjures up thoughts of enraged assailants (more often than not, men) beating up helpless victims. While this may be a somewhat accurate depiction in some cases, there are also incidents where the women in relationships are the agressors in violent attacks. As difficult as it may be for some to believe, oftentimes law enforcement officers may arrive at the scene of an alleged domestic dispute expecting to take the man involved into custody, only to find themselves having to arrest (and in some cases, subdue) a female attacker.